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Transnational Issues

Disputes – International

Prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004. The border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas.

Refugees & Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

As of 2007, there were 39,202 and 1,060 refugees from Tajikistan and Afghanistan respectively. In that same year, IDPs numbered around 3,400, forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border.

Trafficking in Persons

Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, Middle East and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labour in the construction, cotton and tobacco industries. Both men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labour in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitation.

Illicit Drugs

Uzbekistan is a transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets. There is limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption. However, poppy cultivation was almost wiped out by government crop eradication program. The country is a transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan.





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